It is common for ex-smokers to have made a number of attempts (often using different approaches on each occasion) to stop smoking before achieving long-term abstinence. According to a recent survey from UNC over 74. 7% of smokers attempt to quit without any assistance, otherwise known as "Cold Turkey", or with home remedies. A recent study estimated that ex-smokers make between 6 and 30 attempts before successfully quitting. Identifying which approach or technique is eventually most successful is difficult; it has been estimated, for example, that only about 4% to 7% of people are able to quit smoking on any given attempt without medicines or other help. A recent review of unassisted quit attempts in 9 countries found that the majority of quit attempts are still unassisted, though the trend seems to be shifting. In the U. S. , for example, the rate of unassisted quitting fell from 91. 8% in 1986 to 52. 1% during 2006 to 2009. The most frequent unassisted methods were "cold turkey", a term that has been used to mean either unassisted quitting or abrupt quitting and "gradually decreased number" of cigarettes, or "cigarette reduction".