Mount Rushmore was conceived with the intention of creating a site to lure tourists, representing "not only the wild grandeur of its local geography but also the triumph of modern civilization over that geography through its anthropomorphic representation. " For the latest occupants of the land, the Lakota Sioux, and other tribes the monument has "come to epitomize the loss of their sacred lands and the injustices they’ve suffered under the US government. " The U. S. Government promised the Sioux territory, including the entirety of the Black Hills, in the Treaty of 1868. That lasted only until the discovery of gold on the land, and soon after white settlers migrated to the area in the 1870s. The federal government then forced the Sioux to relinquish the Black Hills portion of their reservation. The battle that took place in 1890 between the US Army and the Native Americans is known as the Wounded Knee Massacre, "where hundreds of unarmed Sioux women, children, and men were shot and killed by U. S. troops", as summarized by PBS regarding historian Dee Brown's account of the event.